Parkinson’s Disease Treatment

Content is medically reviewed by:

Dr. Shakti Singh

What is Parkinson’s Disease?

Parkinson’s disease is a neurodegenerative disorder which is progressive and affects movement primarily . It occurs when dopamine producing nerve cells (neurons) in the brain gradually break down or die resulting in low levels of dopamine which is a chemical messenger crucial for smooth, controlled muscle movements. Individuals with Parkinson’s experience tremors, stiffness, and difficulty with balance and coordination.

Symptoms of Parkinson’s Disease

The symptoms of Parkinson’s disease can vary but often include tremors, bradykinesia (slowed movements), muscle stiffness, and impaired balance (1). Patients may also experience the following major symptoms:

Motor Symptoms-

☛  Decreased ability of muscles to generate force
☛  Fatigue
☛  Episodes of freezing of movement
☛  Reduced speed of walking
☛   Difficulty walking backwards and turning
☛   Difficulty in performing multiple tasks
☛   Difficulty in initiating tasks
☛   Posture: people with Parkinson’s have an excessively humped mid back also called kyphosis along with a forward head. Due to one sided weakness they often lean towards the weaker side.

Sensory symptoms

☛  Tremors
☛  Pain
☛  Tingling or prickling sensation

Other symptoms

☛  Dementia
☛  Difficulty swallowing
☛  Bladder dysfunction

Causes for Parkinson’s Disease

The exact cause of Parkinson’s is still unknown, but a combination of genetic and environmental factors is believed to contribute. Certain genetic mutations increase the risk, while exposure to toxins and head injuries may also play a role.(2)

Types of Parkinson’s Disease

Parkinson’s disease can be classified into 3 main types:

Idiopathic Parkinson’s disease consists of most cases with no definite cause, here genetic factors play a major role.

Secondary Parkinson’s this results from a number of definite conditions such as toxins like carbon monoxide, tumours, trauma to the brain

Atypical Parkinson’s this includes individuals which show symptoms like Parkinson’s but due to some underlying neurological conditions like multiple system atrophy, machaao Joseph disease.

Stages of Parkinson’s Disease

Parkinson’s is typically progresses in five stages based on the progression of symptoms. In the early stages, symptoms may be mild including tremors, rigidity, mild posture abnormalities and affect only one side of the body. (3) As the disease advances, symptoms worsen, impacting both sides and leading to more severe motor and non-motor complications along with dementia thus affecting the individuals day to day activities .

Diagnosis for Parkinson’s Disease

Diagnosing Parkinson’s can be challenging, as there is no definitive test. Medical professionals rely on a thorough medical history, a neurological examination, and sometimes imaging tests such as MRI to rule out other conditions. A response to Parkinson’s medication may also support the diagnosis.

Parkinson’s Disease Treatment

Treatment aims to manage symptoms and improve quality of life. Medications including levodopa, that increase dopamine levels, carbidopa, are commonly prescribed. (4)Physical therapy, occupational therapy, and speech therapy can help address movement and communication challenges. Physiotherapy, in particular, plays a crucial role in maintaining mobility and preventing complications.

Physiotherapy interventions for Parkinson’s disease

Range of motion exercises - generalised body movements of all joints help maintain the available motion of the body

Muscle endurance exercises - lightweight exercises with increased repetition help improve muscle endurance and help in better movement control.

Posture control exercises - exercises to strengthen the weak muscles and stretch the tight muscles with awareness about right posture helps in improving chronic abnormal postures

Relaxation exercises - these include stretching exercises and deep breathing techniques to help in relaxation of the body along with improving rigidity of muscles.

Cueing strategies - these include audio and visual clues to help individuals initiate movement.(5)

Functional training - functional activities that mimic daily task related movements help regain lost muscle strategies

Balance exercises - these help maintain balance and avoid falls

Orthotics- certain assistive devices help secure proper posture of the body

Aerobic exercises - these are extremely helpful in early stages of the disease and help with movement control and improved cardiovascular endurance.

Myths About Parkinson’s Disease

Several misconceptions surround Parkinson’s disease, including the myth that it only affects the elderly. While it is more common in older adults, younger individuals can also develop Parkinson’s. Another misconception is that Parkinson’s is solely a movement disorder; however, it can involve a range of non-motor symptoms affecting various aspects of daily life, emphasizing the importance of exploring Parkinson’s Disease Treatment options.

Support for People Living with Parkinson’s Disease

Living with Parkinson’s presents unique challenges, but various support systems can make a significant difference. Parkinson’s support groups provide a platform for individuals to share experiences and coping strategies. Family and friends can offer crucial emotional support, while healthcare professionals, including neurologists and therapists, play pivotal roles in managing the disease.

In addition to medical and emotional support, staying physically active is essential. Regular exercise, including targeted physiotherapy exercises, can help improve mobility, flexibility, and balance. It also contributes to overall well-being, potentially slowing the progression of symptoms.

How can Senocare help?

Parkinson’s disease is a complex condition that requires a multidisciplinary approach for effective management. We at Senocare provide individuals with nurturing caregivers, proper specialist consultation, doorstep delivery of medications, at home physiotherapy along with emotional support . We help individuals understand the symptoms, causes, and available support which is crucial for both individuals living with Parkinson’s and their caregivers. By dispelling myths and fostering a supportive environment, we can enhance the quality of life for those navigating the challenges of Parkinson’s disease.


1. Kalia LV, Lang AE. Parkinson's disease. Lancet. 2015 Aug 29;386(9996):896-912. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(14)61393-3. Epub 2015 Apr 19. PMID: 25904081.

2. Bloem BR, Okun MS, Klein C. Parkinson's disease. Lancet. 2021 Jun 12;397(10291):2284-2303. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(21)00218-X. Epub 2021 Apr 10. PMID: 33848468.


4. Aminoff MJ. Pharmacologic management of parkinsonism and other movement disorders. In: Katzung BG, editor. Basic and Clinical Pharmacology. 10th ed. New York: McGraw-Hill Lange Medical; 2007. pp. 442–451.

5. Gao C, Liu J, Tan Y, Chen S. Freezing of gait in Parkinson's disease: pathophysiology, risk factors and treatments. Transl Neurodegener. 2020 Apr 15;9:12. doi: 10.1186/s40035-020-00191-5. PMID: 32322387; PMCID: PMC7161193.

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